How to water the tomatoes: how much water to give and how often. How to prevent diseases with proper watering. Agronomic techniques and advice.
Tomatoes with yellow leaves, cracks in the skin of the tomato and apex rot. Here are the diseases related to incorrect irrigation.
Water requirement of the tomato
Generally the tomato plants they need about 2.5 cm3 of rain per week, but it is difficult to talk about a constant water requirement. For example, the figure we have indicated (2.5 cm3) is only one average quantityso much so that if the summers are hot it may not be enough. The water requirement increases when tomato plants are grown in pots, when the soil is basically sandy and when the air is dry. On the contrary, the water requirements of tomatoes can decrease if the soil is clayey and tending to stagnation, if the air is rich in humidity and if the plants are of determined growth.
As is clear, it is not possible to speak with "precision" of water requirement of the tomato. Undoubtedly, these are plants that have a high need for water, but many factors must be considered in irrigation.
Watering tomatoes, when not to water and things to avoid
Water too much tomato plants it could create serious problems so first, it is good to learn a few basic rules for one good watering. In this regard we will illustrate you how to water tomatoes giving you all the useful information. Let's start with the mistakes to avoid.
1) Avoid water the tomatoes in too hot hours.
2) Don't water the plants on the leaves. Leaves and fruits must NOT be wet, you must administer the water directly on the ground.
3) Avoid a strong jet of water for a short time. A strong jet of water can damage the structure of the soil, moreover, by administering the water in this way you would only wet the surface.
4) It is preferable water the tomatoes giving a little water at a time. A small water leak from the pump, for a longer time, is appreciated. If you can, install a drip irrigation system.
5) In the first phase of tomato cultivation (planting of plants), make some irrigation canals(grooves) in which you can place a small caliber pump. You can place the pump on the ground, so as to convey the water into the irrigation channel. Leave the water at very low pressure and, in the meantime, go away to do some other work in the garden. The water, flowing slowly, will reach every plant thanks to your irrigation channel.
6) This advice is valid for any type of cultivation but especially for tomatoes grown in pots. Never a day a lot of water and then two or three days without. The tomato must be watered constantly!
How to water the tomatoes
Here are the basic rules for learning how to do a good watering of tomato plants and have a perfect harvest.
The plants should be watered well after transplanting and then regularly, without abounding too much, until the moment of fruit formation. In the early stages of the development of the tomato plant, irrigation should be less abundant so that the small roots can propagate in search of the humidity they need.
With the formation of the fruits, you will have to increase the amount of water administered. Remembering only, however, that the soil should not always be soaked, but fresh. Mulching could be useful to keep the soil fresh but NOT done with plastic sheets (or bioplastic) because they tend to burn the roots and burn the collar of the plants.
How often to water tomatoes
Every day if it comes to potted tomatoes. On the contrary, the irrigations of a tomato cultivation in pot should be done twice a day. Early in the morning and in the evening, giving a small amount of water.
For tomatoes grown in the open ground, the frequency of irrigation depends on climatic factors and the soil. Generally, we also proceed here every day, concentrating irrigation in a single administration. In wetter areas and with optimal soil, it is possible to water every other day.
How to water the tomatoes, problems resulting from incorrect irrigation
Irrigation errors can cause serious damage to the plant. Let's talk about rot, wilting, yellow leaves, fungal diseases… Let's see how to avoid tomato diseases linked to bad irrigation.
They are almost always due to discontinuous humidity or from having exposed the plant to the cold at the beginning of the season. It is therefore necessary to maintain humidity constantly and absolutely avoid the lack of water when the fruits are ripening.
Fungal diseases of tomato
For the good result of the harvest it will be good to reduce nitrogen fertilization, but above all mulch with straw. In this way the soil will be kept more humid and we will prevent the tomato leaves from touching the ground with the risk of contracting fungal diseases.
Tomato plants with yellow leaves
If your tomato plants have leaves with yellow spots, it could be a fungal disease known as Septoria. In this case, the leaves should be cut off before they begin to dot with black as well. Remove the leaves and treat with a copper-based product.
If the tomato plants have yellow or white leaves, it is more likely that it may be a nutritional deficiency, obviously you have not given the fertilizerright or you have not reckoned with the deficits of your land.
In this case it is advisable to administer a specific fertilizer for tomatoes, capable of providing magnesium, potassium and above all calcium. For all the info read the paragraph below.
Fertilizer for tomato
Among the various fertilizers for tomatoes on the market, we point out an excellent one for each phase of plant development. It can also be administered when the fruits have already appeared or are in the ripening phase (it will improve the sweetness of the tomato giving it more flavor).
Such fertilizer is offered on Amazon at a price of about 16 euros (with shipping costs included in the price). It is an excellent product tested in first person both on cherry tomatoes, on datterini tomatoes, yellow tomatoes from Vesuvius (yes, I like small-sized tomatoes) and on the larger Cuore di Bue tomatoes. :))) the result was appreciable.
For all information, I refer you to the "product sheet".
Apical rot of tomato
It is easily diagnosed, since the underside of the fruit turns brown and rots. This is due to a lack of calcium and occurs for the same causes that the fruits crack. So even in this case it is essential to mulch and regular watering.
To prevent this risk, do some foliar treatments based on calcium during growth. It is also good practice to spread the fertilizer evenly. Do a good soil preparation before planting by adding fertilizer to the bottom when preparing the soil for transplanting.
Doubts: can tomatoes be irrigated with salt water?
If you are thinking ofirrigate the tomatoes with salted wateror worse, sea water, pull the handbrake !!
No plants can be irrigated with sea water. Because? For a matter ofosmotic pressure. Sea water, like salt water, is rich in chloride ions and sodium ions (NaCl). These "substances" dissolved in water, when they reach the roots, create a saline environment that will attract the water contained in the roots themselves. The result? The plant loses turgor (withers) and within a few days we will see withered leaves.
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