Types of heat pumps

Types of heat pumps

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THEtypes of heat pumpthey are divided according to the source used (air, water and earth), according to the size (small, medium and even monobloc, split, multisplit…) and according to the presence of any auxiliary systems.

What is a heat pump?

Before examining the different types, let's introduce the topic by explaining what a heat pump is: theheat pumpit is a device capable of transferring heat between two environments that have a thermal gradient, ie a temperature difference;
in this case theheat pumptransfers heat from one environment at a lower temperature to another at a higher temperature. This is why we hear aboutheat pumpsair-water, air-air, water-water, or water-air. Less common, but still important, is the type of ground-water heat pump.

Types of heat pumps

The differenttypes of heat pumpthey are classified according to the external medium from which the heat is extracted. The external medium, called "cold source", as anticipated can be constituted by air, water or soil.

When we talk about "water", it can be located in a tank specially installed and heated by the sun, or groundwater, river, lake ... when this is present in the vicinity where it is intended install the heat pump. Even the air can be extracted from the room where the heat pump or from the external space of the room. As for the land, when it is exploited howsource, pipes relating to the evaporator must be installed inside.

In the article "Heat pumps, different types" we have analyzed advantages and disadvantagesof theheat pumpsair-air, air-water, water-water and land-water. Below we see in detail the "sources" that determine the different onestypes of heat pump:

Air, as a source, has the advantage of being available everywhere. Among the disadvantages we see that the power rendered by theheat pumpdecreases in proportion to the temperature of the source.
If the heat pump uses the outside air and this is approximately around 0 ° C, a defrosting system will be required which involves further energy expenditure.
A good compromise is to take advantage of the indoor air as a source, the so-called "stale air" is warmer (extracted air) but in any case, the room in which the room is located must be renewedheat pumpmust be specially prepared.

The water guarantees good performance to theheat pumpwithout being affected by the climatic trend. Thedownsideof this source lies in the costs as an adduction system will be required.

For further information:Air-water heat pump

Aheat pumpwhich exploits thelandas a source, sees the installation of horizontal pipes buried at a minimum depth of 1 to 1.5 meters so as not to be affected by the vibrations of the external air temperature: the earth has the advantage of undergoing fewer changes in temperature than the air and enjoy the thermal energy transmitted by the sun.
Who points to oneheat pumpof this kind must have an area of ​​land 2 to 3 times higher than the extension of the rooms to be heated. When it comes toheat pumps, this type is the most expensive both for the need for space and for the complexity of the system.

Another classification sees twotypes of heat pump: monovalent and bivalent.

Monovalent heat pump
This type of configuration is used when theheat pumpis able to satisfy the entire thermal needs necessary for heating the rooms. Amonovalent heat pumpit is only rarely of typeair to air. Amonovalent heat pumpcan use the air as a source only in climatic areas where the temperature rarely drops below zero.

Bivalent heat pump
Thebivalent heat pumpsthey exploit an auxiliary heating system, that is, they are placed side by side with a traditional boiler that covers the thermal needs when the air temperatures drop below zero.

Still other classifications see the differenttypes of heat pumpsdivided by "sizes", or power classes.

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Video: How A Heat Pump Works - HVAC (August 2022).