If you are trying to understand how to defrost the refrigerator it is because you have noticed something abnormal in your device. For example, a thick layer of ice on the inside walls and maybe even a few more noises.
Well, it's time to step in; and it is good to do it now. In fact, excess frost not only decreases the space available on the refrigerator shelves, but also the cooling capacity. Ergo: you will consume more electricity, but more than a consumption it will be a waste.
How to defrost the fridge: which fridge do you have?
If you have a single-door fridge and you find it covered with frost inside, there are two things: either it doesn't work correctly (check it because it might suck a lot of electricity) or you don't defrost it for a lifetime. Appliances of this type are suitable for those who buy fresh food day by day and do not have the habit of freezing. There are no compartments for low temperatures and frost forms more slowly.
Most frequently, defrosting involves freezer cabinets with two doors (refrigerator compartment and freezer compartment) or with more than two doors (for example, those equipped with a chiller compartment for optimal storage, up to 10 days, of meat and fish). In some cases the freezer cabinets are provided with separate motors and give the possibility to use them and defrost them only partially. Comfortable.
The most comfortable refrigerators, however, are 'no-frost' (without frost) which defrost automatically because they are equipped with a special forced ventilation that prevents condensation from forming on the surface of the food. They cost a little more, but they save (especially time) in cleaning and maintenance.
How to defrost the refrigerator: operations
Plan the defrosting operation a few days in advance in order to have the refrigerator almost empty and nothing in the freezer. For the last things (such as butter, sauces, vegetables ...), you can use thermal bags such as those used in the supermarket for frozen foods. After that, unplug the power, or disconnect the circuit that powers the refrigerator (sometimes there is a special switch on the wall) leaving the doors open.
To speed up the melting of the ice on the refrigerator walls, you can place one or more bowls of hot water on one of the shelves. For this purpose, rags soaked in hot water are also fine to pass over the frost encrustations to dissolve them quickly and minimize the 'downtime'.
While the ice is melting, start cleaning the fridge starting from the top and taking care to use natural products that can also sanitize the inside (see How to clean the fridge). Remove the shelves and drawers one by one and wipe them with a rag, wipe them dry and put them back after cleaning the aisles and housings. Pay attention to the rubber seals (clean them gently) because they are a receptacle of dirt but they are also delicate and perform an important function.
When everything is done, turn the refrigerator back on and bring it back to the correct temperature. Remember not to put the food in the refrigerator before the device is back up to speed, which you will understand from the very light frost on the walls.