Why and how they use the public transport Italians? The answers are contained in the White Paper on Mobility published by Eurispes and are interesting.
Interesting because they highlight a use of public transport still too limited, to the advantage of private mobility based on cars that congest the cities (for example Rome, Milan and Florence which are the three Italian cities considered by the sample and which were among the most polluted in Europe).
But they are also interesting because they take into consideration a new aspect of mobility, that linked to the spread of communication devices, in particular smartphones and tablets, to which two phenomena are 'interconnected':
- the spread of B2C e-commerce linked to the sale of products and the consequent increase in home deliveries (negative impact on traffic);
- the increase in opportunities for real-time sharing of private transport which, with the various car sharing, uber, blablacar etc., becomes public transport on demand (positive impact on traffic).
In short, the Eurispes White Paper reveals that between public transport and smartphones there is a link, with different impacts.
By means of public transport we can consider urban buses and trams, subways, suburban buses, trains but also taxis, car sharing and bike sharing. For the latter two it is more about 'shared mobility' than public mobility, but in practice the difference is subtle.
46.2% of Italians never use city buses or trams, 33.3% do it sometimes, 11.6% often. Only 5% always use these means of public transport. The suburban buses are used every now and then by 26.3% of Italians, often by 8.5% and always by 4 percent.
And the train? The prince of the means of public transport it doesn't actually seem like a habit. 45.2% of Italians get there sometimes, 6.8% often, 1.9% always for their own journeys. 42.9% of Italians never travel by train.
The use of taxis is a form of public transport the prerogative of a minority of citizens: 80.7% never use it, 14.8% use it sometimes and 1.5% often. Speaking of car sharing, 90.1% never use it, 5.1% use it sometimes, few people always use it. 92.2% of Italians never use bike sharing, only 3.3% use it sometimes.
In the face of a public transport still scarcely used, in Italy there are over 600 vehicles per 1000 inhabitants, with peaks of 700 in Rome and Florence where the average speed of urban travel is less than 10 km per hour.
The problems and contradictions of mobility weigh on family budgets, as well as on the environment in terms of emissions. In fact, Eurispes has calculated that the expenditure incurred by Italian families for private transport amounts to approximately 13% of their income.
But the real novelty is the fact that this edition of the White Paper has also taken into consideration the issue of mobility understood as new technologies, smartphones and tablets, in reality more and more 'interconnected' with that of vehicular mobility due to the consequences on e-commerce and information sharing.
In Italy today there are over 40 million people accessing the Internet. Of these, over 40% do so through mobile devices. Only a variable estimate can be made of the total value of e-commerce transactions, but we are already over 11 billion euros with the prospect of reaching 16 billion in 2016.
Products purchased via the Internet, from fixed or mobile devices, must be delivered to your home and this will have a negative impact on traffic and pollution, from which you can defend yourself for example with less polluting vehicles, especially for urban deliveries.
At the same time, the spread of mobile communication devices will give impetus to the sharing of private means of transport, which will become, if not really a public transport certainly a new mode of service 'to the public'. With benefits for traffic and pollution.
A further boost will be given by the new Apps such as BusRadarRoma, which calculates the routes and arrival times of buses in the capital, improving their usability.
You might also be interested in the "European Week of Sustainable Mobility“