Theamphibians,for their unique ability to lead a life both in and out of water, they can represent one of the bestenvironmental health indicators. A very serious fact is thatfrogs and salamandersthey are disappearing very fast.
Scholars ofamphibiansare on the alert for the disappearance of populations in many geographical areas: according to reports released by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, about 20-30 percent ofamphibians are at risk of extinction. To threaten theamphibiansis environmental pollution: the main threat to the survival ofamphibiansthey are definitely iclimate changes, habitat destruction and water pollution.
The work of man and the other effects due to increasing urbanization are putting theamphibiansso tight that the Red List of species threatened byenvironmentis constantly being revised: in Italy theRed Book of Amphibiansit counts 29 endangered species including anurans and caudates.
In our introduction we mentioned some causes of the "environmental degradation" which puts the populations ofamphibiansin particular geographical areas: it must be said that climate change, deforestation, excessive urbanization and water pollution are factors that damage numerous biodiversity. Just as there is poaching for rhinos and elephants, illegal trade for tigers and turtles, also foramphibiansthere are specific causes responsible for habitat destruction. The drying up of wet habitats is induced by climate change but the populations ofamphibiansthey are disappearing even where such blatant degradation has not occurred.
Two other factors decimated the species, the pH of the aquatic environment and ultraviolet radiation. The pH is conditioned by industrial agriculture and even more by acid rain. Theamphibiansthey are very sensitive to changes in the pH of the aquatic environment: a pH of 5 or lower will determine their death.
It has been calculated that in the southern hemisphere, the aquatic environment is 100 times more acidic than it was before the industrial revolution. Ultraviolet radiation also plays a nefarious role. Unfortunately the amphibiansthey are at risk not only in areas affected by environmental degradation: in the tropics and in pristine areas, amphibians are not unharmed, here the causes are still unknown and it is essential to activate research and studies to identify the origin of this drama. We must do this not only for the protection of biodiversity but above all for environmental and consequently human health.
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