L'graftingit is a widely used agamic propagation system even if in fruit growing it is not operated only for multiplication but for many reasons. Before proceeding with agraftingit is necessary to study the rooting conditions in order to determine the best period, the polarity, the welding, the materials used, the criteria for the choice of rootstock and scion and finally, thegrafting technique.
A question of affinity
When you decide to proceed with agraftingit will be necessary to make sure that the two plants are quite "close" from a botanical point of view. The chances of engraftment go down when two blondes are chosen too far apart and when a virus or disease is present. The affinity is high when you choose blondes of the same species, more difficult but still possible, it is when thegraftingit is operated on plant species of the same genus. One last "detail"which determines the affinity and therefore the success of engraftment, is given by reciprocity. Often we fall into the mistake that, being possibleengagean apple tree on a pear tree, is equally correct engage the Pero sul Melo. Remember, thegraftsthey are not always bidirectional.
As for the period, it runs from January to September. In the warmer regions it continues until October and much depends on the temperature and rainfall. To get more precise information on the best month forengageone or another plant, we refer you to the in-depth study "Grafting, techniques and periods". Once the ideal period has been obtained, you will need to take a look at the mercury column: a temperature above 30-32 ° C will not allow effective and complete sealing (there will be no passage of the lymph and thegraftingwill fail), as well as at too low temperatures. Starting from a temperature of 18 ° C, up to 28 ° C, any type of graft will take root.
What is the exact direction of the organs to be grafted?
In ascion(see below), the polarity is represented by the same orientation that the branch portion had in its original plant. In other words, when proceeding with agraftingit will be necessary to maintain the original direction of the Marza without reversing anything.
Welding represents the operation ofgraftingreal. This phase can be divided into two phases: the healing of the cut with the consequent formation of the callus and the re-creation of the channels that will then allow the passage of the lymph. With welding and withgrafting, new contacts are established between the plant and the graft, a crucial step for taking root.
Welding and temperature have a lot to decide: at low temperatures it is better to surround the couplings with black polyethylene materials, these retain moisture and create a microclimate that can facilitate welding. When the temperature is too hot (always referring to the values given in the paragraph of the period), it is better to use a white paper than surrounded the graft it will protect him from the sun. Other crucial materials are those used for binding. On the market there are adhesive tapes, synthetic fiber, hollow threads in rubber and natural raffia ...
The Marza and the Rootstock
For the choice of scion it must be remembered that the best branches are those well exposed to light, formed by well-ripened tissues. When picking up the scion, branches that are too thin or too vigorous must be avoided. In short, the scion must be ripe but not old! For the rootstock, the most important requirement is indicated in the first paragraph on affinity.
The types of grafting can be divided into two broad categories: bud grafting and scion grafting. Bud grafts include eye, shield, patch, flask…. Scion grafts are more difficult to practice, a 10-12 cm long branch with 2-3 buds is taken. To learn more, we refer you to these contents:
Grafts: techniques and periods
Grafts and Plants: notes and instructions
Perform a Gem Graft
As is clear, we have devoted a great deal of pages toGrafting of fruit trees, this is because the techniques are different and nothing must be left to chance, starting with the cut. To increase the chances of taking root, in addition to the use of a stimulating mastic, it is necessary to make a clean, clean cut without burrs. An unclear cut could cause suffering to the plant and compromise the success of the entire operation. This is why it is recommended to use well-sharpened knives or scissors designed for omega or gem cutting ... The use of the grafting knife is recommended only for those with great practicality and experience. To facilitate the entire operation, also i sector professionals now they use special grafting scissors. Grafting scissors are not expensive and on the market there are exclusive ones for a type of cut or more versatile and therefore adaptable to make different types of grafting. Among the various purchase proposals, I would like to point out what appear to be the grafting scissors with the best quality / price ratio:
- Professional grafting scissors - “Tink-sky Professional” - Price € 29.99
- Professional grafting scissors - "Tofern Professional ”- Price € 23.40
These grafting scissors allow you to easily obtain cuts aomega, split and interlocking (U, V and omega cuts), it is also equipped with two additional blades and the classic blades for pruning the plant. Thegrafting scissors mentionedhave similar characteristics. The only differences lie in the manufacturer and in the fact that the more expensive pruning shears allows you to cut more double branches, with a larger diameter than the Tofren scissors which have a maximum opening of 12 mm.
Made of steel and durable plastic. The cutting system for grafting is particularly suitable for grafting fruit plants even if it fits well on woody branches (roses, vines and other ornamental plants). Both prices indicated include free shipping costs.
How to graft a fruit tree?
- Choose rootstock and scion
- Adjust the scissors to the type of cut (and graft) desired
- Cut the scion and the branch of the rootstock where you want to plant the scion
- Join the scion to the rootstock by adding mastic
- Seal with raffia or grafting tape.