Energy classes of buildings: reference standard, APE, characteristics, tables and new energy performance index.
Read our table with all the energy classes, the relative values and scores to understand the situation of your home or the one you are about to buy.
In Europe, about 40% of total energy is dissipated by the residential and tertiary sector, which is why, in order to lower the levels of harmful emissions, the aim is to improve theenergy efficiency of buildings. In this regard, Legislative Decree number 192 of 2005 establishes the obligation of energy certification of buildings through the issue of a certificate that refers toEnergy Classes. The Legislative Decree refers to an even older European Directive, Directive 2002/91 / EC. Since then, water has passed under the bridge and today, finally, in Italy there is a somewhat more precise picture.
How many energy classes exist
Energy classes of buildings they may differ according to local regulations but by now all regions have adapted to a general model.
To better explain the division of energy classes, let's take as an example the model of the Lombardy Region which sees 8 reference classes.
The energy classes they are assigned on the basis of the primary energy requirements needed to heat each square meter of surface.
The energy requirements it is expressed in kilowatt hours and refers to a calendar year.
Assign the energy classes of buildings taking into consideration only the heating in winter may seem reductive but it must be said that various factors determine the energy needs required by heating a building: first of all the type of heating system used and then the construction materials used, the insulators, the type of walls and windows that form the building envelope.
To standardize the Energy Classes some indicators are used, the so-called E01, for example, is the arithmetic mean of all the scores obtained based on the certifications carried out. In fact, based on the results of the energy classification of buildings, it is possible to assign a score ranging from a minimum of 1 to a maximum of 10.
The best performing class is the A +, which is assigned a score of 10, followed by classes A, B, C, D, E, F and G with a score of zero. The average reference value of a building park it is placed on the border between classes D and E. The zero score with the corresponding class G is assigned when the building has a very high primary energy requirement (kilowatt hours required for heating); as shown in the table, a building that consumes to heat one square meter of surface, 350 kWh, acquires a total of zero points and is downgraded to band G.
In the table: energy consumption for winter heating (EPH) associated with energy classes and scores. The energy classes of the buildings give a great indication of the energy performance of the reference rooms.
Mandatory energy performance certificate
To improve the situation of buildings in our country and achieve the objectives set by the European Union, the energy certification of APE buildings has become mandatory. There is no lack of precise penalties for those who do not respect the rules: in the case of sale or lease of the property, the APE must be attached to the lease or sale contract, that is theenergy performance certificate.
For thedeedlinked to the sale of a house, the Energy Performance Certificate is mandatory. Thereenergy certificationtherefore, it is indispensable among the notarial deeds of sale. The absence of the APE can cause fines ranging from 3,000 to 18,000 euros. The penalty must be covered by both parties and not only by the seller of the property who, on the other hand, will have to bear the costs to produce theenergy certification.
As stated, the energy performance certificate is also mandatory for rental contracts. In this case the penalties are less severe: they range from 1,000 to 4,000 euros. The sanction, also in this case, is borne by both parties who will be equally liable for it.
Improving the energy needs in buildings
To accelerate the impulse towards energy classes more virtuous, a limit size could be set beyond which the mandatory criteria provided for by classes A or B would be triggered.
In our opinion, the third measure to be adopted would be the adoption of incentives to reward building renovations aimed at ensuring the transition to a energy rating more virtuous.
The dispersion of heat is one of the main problems of buildings constructed without respecting the principles of energy efficiency. To see the difference between a building's heat loss level class A is one of lower class it's interesting to watch this thermophoto where the yellow, orange and red areas denote heat dispersion, unlike the blue ones which denote the absence of dispersion towards the outside.
An intervention on the fixtures could, for example, be a first way of limiting heat loss and with it the heating consumption that burdens the tenants and which could thus obtain significant savings.