On the subject of gardening and horticulture, the most advanced ecological system is that of permaculture, which is based on strictly natural principles and was introduced in Japan by Masanobu Fukuoca starting around 1940. In Italy the permaculture has a growing number of enthusiasts and, for those who want to deepen the cultural aspects related to this type of cultivation, there is also one Italian Permaculture Academy (written here with the u) which has a good number of members.
There permaculture it's a inactive agriculture which leaves the task of doing all the work to the rhythms and processes of nature, in line with four principles: no cultivation (the soil is not plowed because roots, worms, small animals and microorganisms do it); no fertilization (no prepared compost or chemicals are used; a vegetable carpet, straw and manure are used); no weeding (natural carpet and natural organic fertilizer are used); no pesticides.
The term permaculture was coined in 1978 by the Australian Bill Mollison and it means precisely permanent agriculture. It uses ecological principles to promote self-healing and self-sufficient mechanisms for what concerns food, water, energy.
In permaculture every available space is used for multi-layer cultivation in close contact: plants in the ground under the trees; climbing vines on the walls; trees and plants with multiple uses (shelter, nourishment, fuel and food for animals.
In a micro-environment managed according to the principles of permaculture a soil suitable for growing edible products and ideal for plants is created, with a global balance between shelter, nourishment and the environment. It can be done in the garden and in the vegetable garden, for those who have it, but also in the city in greenhouses, in small courtyards and in attics converted into greenhouses.
We recommend that you also read our article: Permaculture: where and how to practice it.