Car

The components of an electric car


What are the components that characterize aelectric car? Of course, some things are intuitive, the fuel collection tank is replaced by an energy storage system capable of delivering electricity to the engine so, since there is no combustion of a liquid fuel, an exhaust pipe is not needed (this is why theelectric carsthey don't have a muffler!).

Since this is an electric motor, a fuel filter is not necessary ... and so we return to the opening question: what are the components that allow aelectric carto pass just like a conventional car?

In the architecture of aelectric cara charging unit, an inverter, an accumulator and an engine cannot be missing. That ofelectric carit is not a recent discovery: thanks to the Belgian Camille Jenatzy, already in 1899 aelectric car overcame the 100 km / h wall, unfortunately in the early 1900s the petrol car replaced the electric one due to the limits imposed by the technology of the time, especially related to batteries.

Even today, to occupy greater volume and influence more the overall weight of aelectric caris the accumulator. Even if the lithium-ion batteries have proved to be up to the situation, given the cars even 300 km of autonomy with a full electric, in the field of accumulators, the electric mobility sector still has a long way to go: we are currently studying they are Sodium-Air, Lithium-Air, sodium-nickel chloride batteries and, unreleased from Citroen, Aluminum-Air batteries. Currently, the most used accumulators are:

  • Lithium-ion
  • Metal nickel hydrides (Ni-MH), particularly used on hybrid cars

The"Interconnection bridge"between the electric engine and the accumulator consists of a "control system", it is a unit that manages the battery by delivering power based on the pilot's request (acceleration) and by regulating the charging and discharging phases of the battery.

The control system is given by the aforementioned inverter that converts the direct current of the batteries into current ready for use for the engine (alternating): electric motors usually operate on alternating current. Alongside the inverter there is aAdapter. The gearbox transfers the power generated by the engine to the wheels. It is similar to a gearbox but in this case, the gear ratio is fixed.


Video: How does an Electric Car work? Tesla Model S (October 2020).