You have to be good and have a lot of patience to read and understand it electricity bill. The document with which the energy carriers present the bill of electricity consumption has the air of something written on purpose so as not to be understood, and perhaps the purpose is partly this because if the various Enel, Terna and so on wanted to make themselves understood they would not write like that.
However, it must be said that in the electricity bill there are so many items and parameters that it becomes really difficult to reconstruct and present the original cost of energy in a transparent way, and this does not depend on the carriers but on sometimes cumbersome rules that have stratified over time (for petrol and fuels it is not so much different).
Speaking of electricity, the price expressed in euros that we find indicated in the electricity bill it is given by the sum of 5 main items: sale + transport + dispatching + charges + taxes. Each item is in turn influenced by variable parameters according to consumption, energy source and more which together lead to the above complexity. Let's limit ourselves to the main items.
Sale. This item represents approximately 63% of the electricity bill and photograph the value of the energy purchased. The sale price is variable based on the price of the fuels used for the production of electricity. Obviously, each carrier chooses the basket it deems most appropriate (and with renewable energies the basket has expanded) so the indices are not comparable. In supply contracts, prices are formulated on the basis of consumption bands.
Transport. The transport item accounts for about 9% of the total electricity bill. Three sub-items contribute to its determination: transmission, measurement and distribution. The transmission covers the costs for the transport of energy on the national network; the measure covers the costs of installation and maintenance of the meter and the costs of recording and recording the measures; distribution relates to costs for transport on local distribution networks and related commercial activities.
Dispatching. It corresponds to the management of energy transmission flows on the supply and demand network because electricity, unlike gas, cannot be stored (not yet at least). The dispatching item in the electricity bill covers the costs that Terna incurs for the real-time management of electricity flows (costs published by the resolution of the Authority for the Management of Electricity and Gas (AEEG).
System charges. They account for about 15% and constitute the most cryptic part of the electricity bill. They are established by the Authority and cover different things such as: account for the financing of residual nuclear activities; account for new plants from renewable sources; account for the financing of research activities; account for the reintegration to the producing and distributing companies of the costs incurred for the production of energy in the transaction to the free market; account for the compensation of tariff concessions to customers in the electricity sector in a state of hardship ... and other things.
Taxes. On this entry of the electricity bill the national consumption tax (excise duty) and the value added tax (VAT) weigh. The first applies to the amount of energy consumed: for domestic consumption up to 1800 kWh there is a subsidy for the supply in the house of registered residence. VAT is applied to the total cost of the bill haimé (including excise duty, tax on tax!). VAT for domestic customers is 10%.