Poisonous mushrooms, symptoms

Poisonous mushrooms, symptoms

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Poisoning and intoxication from poisonous mushrooms, what are the symptoms and how soon do they manifest themselves? All useful information for those who suspect they have ingested poisonous mushrooms.

THE poisonous mushroomsthey are considered as such because even after prolonged cooking they cause toxic effects of varying degrees: we are talking aboutintoxication from ingestion of mushroomsormushroom poisoning. Among the different species that thrive in Italy, there is no shortagepoisonous and deadly mushrooms. What are the symptoms of mushroom poisoning? How many hours do these symptoms occur and what to do if mushroom poisoning is suspected? On this page we will try to give you all the answers using the guidelines for the prevention of mushroom poisoning made available byMinistry of Health.

TheMinistry of Healthit is clear: you should not consume mushrooms that have not first been checked by a professional mycologist. Unfortunately, this prescription is not applied in daily practice, neither in Italy, nor in the rest of the continent: in Europe, every year, there are about 10,000 cases of food poisoning linked to the ingestion of mushrooms.

THEsymptomsrelated to the ingestion ofpoisonous mushroomsor inedible are various and in the most serious cases can cause irreparable damage to the liver up to requiring transplantation. In case of suspicion mushroom poisoning, the Ministry of Health prescribes to contact aPoison Control Centeror to the nearest emergency room.

Poisonous mushroom poisoning: symptoms

There are godsshort latency symptoms that is, appearing from 30 minutes to 6 hours after ingestion. In this case, the poisoning is mild and the risks to life are minimal, so much so that isymptomsthey resolve within 24 hours. On the contrary, isymptomslong-latency, i.e. those that appear 6 to 20 hours after ingestion of poisonous mushrooms, can represent an alarm bell that should not be underestimated because the risks to life increase. Based on the above, ask yourself,when did the first symptoms appear?

Symptoms related to the so-calledShort latency syndromes
- When the sontomas appear from 30 minutes to 6 hours after ingestion

  1. Symptoms involving the gastrointestinal system:
    nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dehydration ...
  2. Panterinal Syndrome which sees the appearance of symptoms Which:
    drowsiness, disorientation, confusion, convulsions, agitation.
  3. Symptoms involving the Muscarinic receptor:
    lacrimation, hypotension and breathing difficulties.
  4. Symptoms of a psychological nature or psychotropic syndrome; in this context we also speak of hallucinogenic mushrooms or small mushrooms. Symptoms involve hallucinations that disappear within a few hours or in any case within 24 hours of ingesting the mushrooms.
  5. Coprinic syndrome: occurs when ingestion ofpoisonous mushroomsit is associated with the administration of alcohol. THEsymptomsthey range from agitation, to lowering blood pressure up to skin reddening.
  6. Paxillin syndrome: occurs when ingestion ofpoisonous mushroomsor inedible has persisted over time. The subject, repeatedly feeding onmushroomsinedible meetssymptomssuch as hemolytic anemia.
  7. Symptoms involving the kidneys, nephrotoxic syndrome:
    transient renal failure.

Betweenpoisonous mushroomsThat causes symptoms at short latency we point out the Russula emetica (in my photo above, on the left), Amanita muscarina, the mushrooms of the species Boletus satanas, Amanita pantherina, Tricholoma pardiunum, Agaricus zanthoderma, Entoloma lividum, Omphalotus olearius, Coprinus atramanterius, Clularitocybe neb , Clitocybe cerussata, Psilocybe moravica and many others. Some pictures of poisonous mushrooms and deadly mushrooms are available in our dedicated photo gallery:Poisonous mushrooms.

Mushroom poisoning symptoms related to the so-calledLong latency syndrome
- These symptoms appear 6 to 20 hours after ingestion, in some rare cases even up to 40 hours after eating poisonous mushrooms

  1. Falloid Syndrome
    The first symptoms are felt no earlier than 6 - 12 hours and sometimes even up to 40 hours after ingestion ofpoisonous mushrooms. This syndrome can be caused by thepoisonous mushroomAmanita phalloides. Symptoms? Repeated episodes of vomiting and diarrhea, acute hepatitis with possible need for transplant. It is a life-threatening syndrome.
  2. Orellanic Syndrome
    Orellanin is a mycotoxin that causes kidney failure requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. It can be caused by the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms such as Cortinarius orellanus and Cortinarius rubellus.
  3. Gyromitric syndrome
    Symptoms are sleepiness, agitation, seizures, muscle contracture, haemolytic anemia, and liver and kidney damage. Prophylaxis includes prompt therapies based on hepatoprotectors, folic acid and vitamin B6 which usually lead to recovery.

Among the deadly fungi that can cause Long Latency Syndromes we point out:

Amanita phalloides
Amanita virosa
Amanita verna
Galerina marginata
Lepiota brunneoincarnata
Lepiota helveola
Cortinarius orellanus
Cortinarius rubellus
Cudonia circinans
Gyromitra esculenta
Gyromitra gigas
Gyromitra infula

What to do in case of suspected ingestion of poisonous mushrooms?
If you notice the appearance of any of the symptoms listed and suspect that you have ingestedpoisonous mushrooms, contact the Poison Control Center of your local ASL or the Emergency Department; if possible, bring one of the raw mushrooms that caused your intoxication to the attention of the specialist.

How to recognize poisonous mushrooms

As stated, the Ministry of Health prescribes the consultation of a professional mycologist. If you have any doubts about the edibility of the mushrooms collected, you can go to the local ASL where an expert mycologist will have to provide you with all the information on the treatments to be done after cooking and on the presumed edibility of the examining mushrooms. Very useful, for cognitive purposes, are the illustrated volumes that compare the photos of edible mushrooms with those of poisonous mushrooms common in Italy. Among the available volumes we point out three so as to meet different needs.

Mushrooms from our mountains, forests and meadows. Good, less good, toxic and poisonous
Price: € 6.80
Written by the President and scientific coordinator of the Orto d’Europa Mycological Group and member of the National Scientific Committee of the Bresadola Mycological Association. Strengths: A book on mushrooms written by a photographer fond of mushrooms.

All mushrooms. Look for them, recognize them, collect them
Price: € 12.67
Contains 200 cards illustrated with photos and photos comparing poisonous mushrooms and edible mushrooms that look alike !. For each mushroom, the characteristics such as preferred habitat, morphology (cap, stem, meat), edibility and / or toxicity, similarities and varieties, growing season, etymology and curiosity are explained.

Complete guide to mushroom recognition. With DVD
Price: € 21.17
A very complete and easy to consult book. The manual contains illustrations and identification cards. Also in this case there are cards that compare poisonous mushrooms with their edible counterparts, underlining the characteristics that can help in the recognition of poisonous species. Attached to the book is a DVD full of practical tips for the correct research and collection of mushrooms.

You might also be interested in the articleEdible Mushrooms

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Video: Mushroom Poisoning Amanita phalloides death cap mushroom- Fmge and Neet pg Pharmacology (May 2022).